An Introduction To Pipeline Pigging
Pig trap is typically an over-sized section in the pipeline, reducing to the normal diameter, to accommodate the tight-fitting pig. This section does not cite any sources. Once inserted into a line, pigs are driven through the line by applying pressure in the direction of required movement. Intelligent pigs are a specialised area in their own right and will only be mentioned briefly in this paper.
Spheres can be solid or inflatable with air, water, or glycol and are used for product separation, liquid removal, and in meter proving. Foam pigs also allow the addition of gauge plates, brushes, abrasives etc. Pigs are used to apply internal pipe coatings, such as epoxy coating materials, in operating pipelines. Nonthaphon Vattanataysanun. The cleaning agent then had to be subjected to effluent treatment or solvent recovery.
In natural-gas pipelines, pigs are used to manage liquid accumulation and keep the pipeline free of liquids. Coupled with the economic drive to maintain product flow, the importance of this task has spawned a whole industry to ensure pipeline integrity. As pig travel along the pipeline, there are a number functions the pig can do, from clearing the line to inspecting the interior.
The same train can be loaded behind a pigging valve and launched without stopping flow, allowing pressure equalisation between the line and pig trap. Today, however, the use of smaller diameter pigging systems is now increasing in many continuous and batch process plants as plant operators search for increased efficiencies and reduced costs. It covers both major types of pigging tools, utility pigs and in-line inspection tools, also known as intelligent or smart pigs. Some features of WorldCat will not be available. In other words, the combined data reveals to the operator the location, type and size of each pipe defect.
Without interrupting the flow, pig is inserted into the pipeline using the pig trap. During an operating procedure, only one key at a time is free.
These systems are not common. Any temporary pipework should be secured and permanent facilities and equipment should be rated for multiphase flow. As an example, a multiple-pig pig train can be launched in several ways. Pigs can be used to mechanically clean waxes and other hydrocarbon build-ups, or chemicals can be batched between pigs to provide chemically enhanced cleaning. This is generally done by utilising a pig train consisting of cleaning, gauging, and batching pigs to flood the line.
The Process Piping Facebook Page. For certain tasks and in certain conditions, a viable alternative to running mechanical pigs is the use of gel pigs. The principle of valve interlocking is the transfer of keys.
An introduction to pipeline pigging
The purpose of pipeline pigging has evolved with the development of technologies ans thus the types of pigs. There are many reports of incidents in which operators have been injured or even killed while performing a pigging operation. Crude construction methods and a lack of maintenance meant that over time flow became restricted through the lines resulting in higher pumping pressures and decreased overall efficiency. The selection of pig traps and the method of launch and receipt of pigs depend on several factors.
Pressure vessel used for launching and receiving pigs. By evaluating the rate of change of a particular defect over several years, proactive plans can be made to repair the pipeline before any leakage or environmental damage occurs.
In the pipeline, pig is either pushed by the line fluid flow pressure or pulled through by a cable. Please enter recipient e-mail address es. Intelligent pigs are used to inspect the pipeline with sensors and record the data for later analysis. All these causes are directly related to improper operation of the process valves and the closure door.
English View all editions and formats. This key only fits in the interlock belonging to the valve that is to be operated next in the operating procedure.
Foam Open cell polyurethane foam is available in light, medium, and heavy density, dependant on the application. Inline inspection is generally carried out as part of a routine maintenance plan. Additional sealing elements can be added to pigs, leading to better sealing properties along with a higher pressure differential required to drive the pig.
Introduction to Pipeline Pigging Operations Management
The inspection results are typically archived perhaps in Pipeline Open Data Standard format for comparison with the results of later pigging runs on the same pipeline. Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. WorldCat is the world's largest library catalog, helping you find library materials online.
Water and natural-gas liquids can condense out of the gas stream as it cools, which affects flow efficiency and can lead to enhanced corrosion. Gauging Gauge Plate In order to identify any major restriction in flow area through a line a simple metal plate is attached to the pig to provide an internal line gauge.
The first two slugs of fresh water provide desalination for a line previously flooded with seawater, ps vita gta 5 while the glycol slugs aid in dehydration and hydrate inhibition upon the introduction of product. An Introduction to Pipeline Pigging Uploaded by robiged.
As the capacity and reliability of solid-state memory improved, most recording media moved away from tape to solid-state. If a product was used to clear the line, it was necessary to downgrade or dump the contaminated portion of the product.
An Introduction to Pipeline Pigging
Support for the pig to ensure it remains central in the line can be provided by either support discs, or, for large diameter pigs, centralising wheels. Not to be confused with Pegging.
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